Undersökning av effekten av SmartDrive för mobilitet, aktivitet och axelsmärta hos personer med ryggmärgsskada som använder manuell rullstol
Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka effekten av användning av SmartDrive avseende generell aktivitet och skuldersmärta hos manuella rullstolsanvändare med ryggmärgsskada.
to investigate long-term effects of SmartDrive on mobility, everyday activity, and shoulder pain among spinal cord injured manual wheelchairs users.
Material and methods
A prospective pilot intervention study was conducted at Spinalis/Aleris Rehab Station, Sweden. Participants were consecutively invited when evaluated for SmartDrive prescription. Assessments were done at baseline, intervention (use of SmartDrive), and after six months. A smartwatch registered wheelchair utilization including push intensity and pushes/day. Wheelchair Outcome Measure, pain rating instruments including Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index, a wheelchair test, and semi-structured interviews were used. Descriptive statistics and content analysis approach were used.
Twenty-five persons were screened, six of 14 included completed the study. Drop-out reasons were not related to SmartDrive for five of the eight persons. After intervention, there was a tendency of decreased pain (median (IQR) 5/10 (2.6–6.6) vs 2.5 (2–3.2). All participants reported increased satisfaction of performance when “taking a walk”, from median (IQR) 45/100 (27–70) at baseline to 95 (80–100) at 6 months. Two persons who could not ascend a slope at baseline could manage using the SmartDrive. Interviews revealed that the in general positive response persisted at six months. Also, with the SmartDrive the participants could go out despite pain, providing a sense of freedom and independence. Three incidents were reported.
This long-term pilot study indicates that a SmartDrive might be a valuable assistive device to promote mobility despite of shoulder pain. All participants considered it easy to use and experienced increased independence, however skills training and follow-ups are necessary.
- IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION
- A Rear Drive Power Assist Device (RD-PAD) could increase satisfaction with self-selected activities.
- A RD-PAD could increase functional mobility by facilitating propelling longer distances and steeper slopes.
- A RD-PAD could improve perseverance of daily activities in spite of shoulder pain.
- A RD-PAD could be a valuable assistive aid for persons with paraplegia with different level of wheelchair skills but with good self-awareness regarding their abilities.
- Thorough assessment of initial wheelchair skills, training, and follow-up are important to enhance safety and maximize performance when using the RD-PAD.
Keywords: Paraplegia, shoulder dysfunction, power assist devices, propulsion, assistive technology.
We are grateful to all participants in this study. We would like to thank Karin Leire and Carla Nooijen from the research team at Permobil for valuable input and constructive discussion, Sebastian Håkansson for technical support, professor Claes Hultling for encouragement and insightful reflections, Erika Nilsson for inspiration, and Viveka Hawkins for help with transcription. Further, thanks to Spinalis Foundation and to Lena Lindbo and Spinalis out-patient clinic at Aleris Rehab Station.
Effects of the SmartDrive on mobility, activity, and shoulder pain among manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury – a prospective long-term cohort pilot study
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, July 2022
E. Butler Forslund, I. Löfvenmark